How to write abstracts
How to write abstracts
Editorial board introduces new requirements for the abstracts beginning from No1, 2015
General requirements to abstracts
Abstract (author’s summary) in a periodical is a source of information on article content and the presented research results.
- Be informative (not general words and phrases);
- Be original;
- Reflect article content and the presented research results;
- Be structured according to article logic;
- Be written in good English;
- Brief (100-150 words).
Main targets of the abstract
- Abstract is a brief resume of a larger scientific work;
- Abstract can be published separately from the main text and hence must be understandable without it;
- The reader must be able to understand the main point of the research;
- The reader must decide whether he/she shout read the main text;
- The abstract is the main source of information for the information systems and databases that index the journal;
- Abstract is accessible in Internet and is indexed by the browsers.
Structure, content and size
- Abstract should contain significant research facts without exaggerating them and should not contain material not mentioned in the main text.
- Abstract structure that follows the article structure (introduction, objectives, results, conclusion) is appreciated.
- Object, theme and objective of the paper are mentioned if they are not clear from the title. Methods are described when they are new or interesting in the context of this work.
- The results are described briefly.
- New theoretical and experimental results, factual data with the focus on the new information important in the long term or practically.
- The conclusions may be followed by comments.
- The information contained in the title should not be repeated in the abstract.
- Introductory phrases should be avoided.
- Historical references to the known sources are not described.
- The text should be 100-250 words.
A sample abstract 1
A considerable part of innovative plans concerning implementation of developments with underlying novelties either do not reach the implementing stage, or in fact yield less benefit than anticipated. One of the reasons of such failures is the fact that the manager lacks real tools for planning, evaluating and controlling innovations. The article brings forward the mechanism for a strategic planning of a company, based on the analysis of both inner company’s resources, and outer competitive strength, as well as on searching ways of using external opportunities with account taken of the company’s specific character. Strategic planning is based on a code of regulations and procedures containing a series of methods, the use of which makes it possible for company’s manager to ensure prompt measures of reaction to outer business environment changes. Such methods include: strategic segmentation; solving problems in real-time mode; diagnostics of strategic readiness to operate in the context of the future; working out a general plan of management; planning of the business position of the firm; strategic transformation of the company. Strategic planning process is presented as a closed cycle consisting of 9 successive stages, each of them represents a logical sequence of measures ensuring the dynamics of system development. The developed by the author strategic planning methods result in the recommendation to proceed to “interactive strategic management” which is conceptually based on the constructive potential of the collective body, on searching ways of its building on the basis of effective overcoming accelerating changes, increasing organizational complexity, and unpredictable changeability of the environment.
A sample abstract 2
The problem of formation of professional and value orientations system of the future music teachers in the system of secondary professional education is stated. Features of the trained cohort and specifics of training of students of Musical Department of teacher training college, influencing formation of professional and value orientations are formulated. Distinctions in age structure of students, more close connections of average educational institution with students and their families, bigger specific weight of small group and individual occupations causing emotional and personal character of the relations of pupils with teachers, the practice-focused training orientation are distinguished from the major factors distinguishing educational process in teacher training college from higher education institution.